Don't you think it is high time we make our elected representatives accountable to us? Somewhere along the way, I think our leaders have forgotten that we send them to make laws for the country and not create loss for its people through their loot.
There are parts of India where public money is spent to line the pockets of the political class but where no assets get created, no services get delivered. Roads develop potholes within days of being laid, bridges collapse after the first vehicle plies on them, hospitals have no stock of medicines, schools don't have teachers and so on.
Then there are places like where I live, on what should cost one rupee, much much more is spent, the difference is pocketed. In such places, they are constantly digging roads and filling them up again, all in the name of development. CCTV cameras are set up all over the city, which allow policemen in control rooms to monitor what's happening as they seek to keep the city safe. Educated people like you and me buy the development story when it is actually a gigantic orchestrated loot.
It is time to say enough is enough.
As you go to cast your vote this year, know where your neighbourhood stands. Know whether there has been any significant change in the quality of life of people in your constituency over the last 10 years, between the 2001 census and the 2011 census. If the quality of life has not improved, make your vote count, make it heard loud and clear. Our report presents the bare facts. The bare facts of where we stand as a country based on the census data of 2011.
It is time to make our elected representatives accountable to outcomes, to development outcomes. The MPs who we will be sending to parliament in a month's time, the MLAs, the corporators and the panchayat members. It is a well oiled machine this, the 3 tier political structure works like a well oiled machine for a coordinated loot of the exchequer.
As Rajiv Gandhi is reported to have said, less than 15 % of what the government spends reaches the intended beneficiary. If that was the situation in 1985, imagine what it must be like now. Will it be even 5 paisa or will be even less.
There is a law in the books which requires every district in India to have a district plan.
These plans are then supposed to be rolled up into a state plan for presentation to the Planning Commission when they approve outlays. Find out if your district has a plan, chances are it does not.
If it does, get yourself a copy.
If it does not, ask why not and push for the creation of one. A good plan must tell you what is sought to be done with the financial resources allocated to the district. As a citizen, you must have a say in how it is drawn up and what is done with your money.
In the team that prepared this report, there are Modi supporters and Modi bashers. There are Congress voters and those that are anti Congress. Not to mention those that are rooting for the regional forces to take charge in Delhi.
So what brought us together ? Our belief that at the end of the day, our government has to deliver an improved quality of life for all of us, for each one of us. Our elected representatives have to make it happen. That's why we vote them to occupy those positions they do.
Together, let us make it happen. It is time for C Governance.
|Lok Sabha Constituency||Ladhakh|
|Result of 2004||Thupstan Chhewang|
|Result of 2009|| Hassan Khan|
Kargil district with a population of 140,802 in Jammu & Kashmir state, accounts for 1.12 per cent of the state's population. Scheduled castes and scheduled tribes form 0.01 and 86.89 per cent of the district’s population, respectively. The level of urbanisation of the district is 11.60 per cent. The distribution of population across village size classes is important, in particular, for the provision of those services whose cost of provision declines as the number of consumers increases. Table 1 gives the population distribution by size class of villages.
|Table 1: Share of Population by Size Class of Villages in Kargil - 2011|
|Less than 500 People||11.06%||The distribution of population across village size classes is important, in particular, for the provision of those services whose cost of provision declines as the number of consumers increases.|
|500 - 999||26.76%|
|1000 - 1999||30.68%|
|2000 - 4999||24.75%|
|5000 - 9999||6.75%|
|10000 and above||0%|
The overall male literacy rate increased from 76.00 per cent in 2001 to 83.15 per cent in 2011 while the female literacy rate increased from 42.00 per cent to 56.30 per cent in 2011. The literacy rates in 2011 in rural and urban areas is given in Table 2.
|Table 2: Literacy Rate(%) - 2011|
|Male Literacy Rate(%)
||Female Literacy Rate(%)
|Rural - Kargil||81.62||54.98|
|Urban - Kargil||92.82||67.82|
|2001 : 862 2011 : 977||
The child sex ratio, is the number of girls per 1000 boys in the age group 0-6 years. Ideally the sex ratio at birth should be between 943 and 954 and can be used as a thumb rule to measure the extent of gender discrimination in the district. The district ranks 31 among 640 districts of India. The issue of sex selective abortion and female infanticide needs to be addressed urgently in districts with a sex ratio far below of 943 girls per 1000 boys.
An indicator of the extent of economic development in a region is the workforce participation rate and the distribution of workers across sectors of work. The workforce participation rate (WPR) is calculated as the ratio of individuals in the workforce to the total population. Note that children are included in the calculation of the WPR. The male WPR and female WPR in Kargil district are 51.22 per cent and 19.1 per cent respectively (Table 3). The male WPR and female WPR in the state are 48.11 per cent and 19.11 per cent respectively.
|Table 3: Workforce Participation Rate - 2011|
|Kargil||51.22 (420)||19.1 (461)|
|The figure in the parenthesis reflects the ranking out of the 640 districts of India.|
Individuals who are part of the workforce could be working for at least 6 months a year, or 3-6 months a year or 0-3 months a year. Any individual who works for at least six months a year is considered to be a main worker while those working for less than six months a year are considered marginal workers. In this district, among male workers 63.19 per cent are main workers while among female workers 31.3 per cent are main workers.
The distribution of main workers in this district is as follows: 6.34 per cent are cultivators, 1.81 per cent are agricultural labourers, 0.94 per cent is household industry workers and 90.91 per cent are engaged in other activities. This is the level of disaggregation at which data is made available as part of the Census of India datasets. As is evident, one limitation of the classification is that this distribution is not very informative for urbanised areas. In a heavily urbanised constituency the proportion of agricultural labourers and cultivators would be low and the proportion of workers classified as working in other activities would be high.
One of the targets under Millennium Development Goals is the generation of productive jobs. But India has failed in this regard. This is despite the emphasis on inclusive growth process and employment generation in the 11th and 12th five year plan. India's Economic Survey 2012-13 posed a pointed question: where will good jobs come from? The current thinking is that "full and productive employment and decent work" should be made a central goal of the post-2015 development agenda.
In fact, in rural areas, poverty is concentrated among those engaged as labourers and in urban areas it is high among casual labourers. Kargil district accounts for 0.32 per cent of cultivators and 0.33 per cent of agricultural labourers in this state. Overall, it is important to increase the number of workers engaged in "full and productive employment and decent work". In rural areas it is important to improve the livelihoods of those engaged as agricultural labourers.
District level estimates of the incidence of poverty are not available. A decline in incidence of poverty does not necessarily mean an automatic improvement in living conditions. The 1993 Expert Group on Poverty states: "Poverty line derived from personal consumption patterns and levels do not take into account items of social consumption such as basic education and health, drinking water supply, sanitation, environmental standards, etc. in terms of normative requirements or effective access. However the standard of living of a region can be gauged from the housing amenities. Housing comprises a bundle of characteristics. The government has various schemes aimed at improving condition of dwelling, access to water sanitation, etc. The status of various housing amenities is given in Table 4.
|Table 4: Proportion of Households in Kargil|
|Living in dwellings deemed as good condition||15.09||24.60|
|With electricity as main source of lighting||77.13||86.89|
|Having latrine facility within premises||95.45||96.91|
|Using clean fuel as source of cooking fuel||22.40||18.25|
|With a Bank Account||49.70||77.30|
An indicator of the level of deprivation in the district is the proportion of households that do not have any of the following: radio, television, telephone, bicycle, scooter, car or a bank account. In this district 19.43 per cent of households do not have any of the above mentioned goods and services.
Bank accounts are a proxy for the extent of financial intermediation. In this district, 77.30 per cent of households have a bank account. In 2011, this district ranks 90 among the 640 districts in terms of extent of financial intermediation.
Television : 43.97%
Mobile Phone: 42.46%Computer (With Internet): 1.29%
Computer (Without Internet): 4.23%
In December 2002, following the 86th amendment to the Indian Constitution free and compulsory education was made a fundamental right for all children between 6-14 years old. The legislation for operationalising this was The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009. Article 21-A of the Indian constitution making education a fundamental right for children aged 6-14 years and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. Section 16 and 29(h) of the RTE Act has proved to be controversial. It states, "No child admitted in a school shall be held back in any class or expelled from school till the completion of elementary education". Further Section 29(h) of the act also talks of "Comprehensive and continuous evaluation of child's understanding of knowledge and his or her ability to apply the same". However independent surveys have documented that learning outcomes of India's children are lagging. This suggests that the principle of comprehensive and continuous evaluation of child's learning as enunciated in the RTE Act has not been a success.
The government is trying to ensure that all children are enrolled in school. With the objective of achieving universal elementary education, it becomes important to ensure that every constituency has adequate numbers of middle level schools and higher education institutions. This will result in increasing the average level of educational attainment of the individuals entering the workforce. There are a total of 125 villages and 594 schools in this district. The distribution of schools by type of ownership is given in Table 5. In Kargil,10.10 per cent of schools are private schools.
In this district, 46.27 per cent of classrooms in schools that only have primary sections are in good condition, 55.29 per cent of classrooms in primary schools with upper primary sections are in good condition, and 47.79 per cent of classrooms in primary schools with upper primary sections or higher secondary sections are in good condition.
|Table 5: Distribution of Schools by Type in Kargil - 2011|
|Total Schools||Rural Schools|
|Primary with Upper Primary||265||25||255||19|
|Primary with Upper Primary Secondary / Higher Secondary||9||11||7||6|
|Upper Primary Only||6||0||5||0|
|Upper Primary with Secondary / Higher Secondary||40||1||35||0|
|No Response in School Category||0||0||0||0|
|Reproductive & Child Health: Facts||Interpretation|
|MMR India : 178
Target by 2015: 109
District level estimates of Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) are not available. The Janani Suraksha Yojana launched in April 2005 seeks to "reduce maternal and neo-natal mortality by promoting institutional delivery among poor pregnant women". The multiple factors that contribute to the unacceptably high number of maternal deaths are viz. prevalence of marriage below the legal age, inadequate antenatal and postnatal care, and absence of skilled personnel at the time of child birth.
|4.3 per cent of girls marry before the legal age of 18 years||In order to tackle the problem of child marriage, in addition to compulsory registration of marriages, information and education campaigns also need to be initiated in the district.|
|64.6 per cent of women made at least 3 ANC visits
54.5 per cent of women delivered in an institutional facility
|82.8 per cent of children, in the age group 12-23 months received full immunization||The Intergrated Child Development Services Scheme (ICDS) was launched in 1975 with the objective of improving the nutrition and health status of children in the age group 0-6 years. The scheme sought to reduce incidence of mortality, morbidity, malnutrition and school dropout rates. Yet, the progress has been limited. In 1985, the Universal Immunization Program was conceived with the objective of ensuring complete vaccination for every child in India. Yet, India is far from ensuring that all the children have gone through the full course of vaccinations. In terms of full immunization of children - Kargil ranks 86 among 640 districts of India.|
|The proportion of married women in the age group of 15-49 years who are aware of HIV-AIDS is 35.7||The fourth phase of the National Aids Control Programme was launched in February 2014. India has made progress in tackling the spread of HIV/AIDS. Presently the prelevance rate of HIV/AIDS is 0.36 per cent. Central to the strategy to reducing the prevalance rate is awareness. In terms of awareness of HIV-AIDS among women Kargil ranks 442 among the 640 districts of India.|
|For every 10,000,000 people there is 355.11 primary health centre and 213.07 community health centre||The National Rural Health Mission launched in 2005 sought to establish "a fully-functional and community owned decentralised health delivery system to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of health determinants". In order to improve reproductive and child health indicators it is necessary not only to ensure that 100 per cent of villages have a primary health sub centre but adequate medical supplies are available in each centre. Availability of physical infrastructure and human resources at the primary health centres is also important to determine the scope of available infrastructure in the region.|
Methodology: The District Development Indicators has been generated based on official statistics. Data on population, sex ratio, livelihoods, socio-economic status have been sourced from data released as part of Census of India 2011. The sources of data for educational and health outcomes are the District Information System for Education and District Level Household & Facility Survey respectively.
Data Availability: A number of constituencies split across districts and even tehsils. The geographical disaggregation at which Census of India data sets are available does not allow us to generate constituency profiles. Note that there are 543 Lok Sabha seats and 640 districts. So many constituencies will be part of one or more districts. Further two constituencies may be part of one district and it is not possible to identify constituency development indicators given the data limitation. These caveats need to be borne in mind. Comparison of outcomes across the years 2001 and 2011 is not feasible due to data limitations.
Credits: The preparation of this report was coordinated by S Chandrasekhar, Associate Professor, Indira Gandhi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai. Technology and database support was provided by the following individuals from IRIS Business Services Limited: Virat Gaywala, Kavita Tank, Prerana Markad, Deepti Bandre , Sweta Shetty, Tushar Chhabhaiya and Vijay Parulekar. IRIS Business Services Limited is one of the first providers of full professional XBRL products and solutions to organizations globally. Research support was provided by Aritra Chakrabarty, Anurupa Bose, Nandini Bhattacharya and Rituparna Dutta from IRIS Knowledge Foundation
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